This issue of FLUXES addresses the potential and limitations of nature-based solutions for carbon removals from a scientific perspective:
What can be measured?
What conclusions can be drawn?
What solutions seem adequate?
The observational data produced by ICOS can support policy-makers in various ways. Robust data can help to identify whether and how strong a carbon sink is. Long-term and consistent data can produce reliable estimates of the sizes of the carbon pools and inform how these pools respond to environmental and management changes as the world transitions towards carbon neutrality.