Supplementary data: Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement

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Map of percentage reduction of fossil fuel CO<sub>2</sub> emissions per region and country as function of time during the confinement period
Map of percentage reduction of fossil fuel CO2 emissions per region and country as function of time during the confinement period

Citation of this supplement: Le Quéré, C., Jackson, R., Jones, M., Smith, A., Abernethy, S., Andrew, R., De-Gol, A., Shan, Y., Canadell, J., Friedlingstein, P., Creutzig, F., & Peters, G. (2020). Supplementary data to: Le Quéré et al (2020), Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement (Version 1.0). Global Carbon Project. https://doi.org/10.18160/RQDW-BTJU

References: Corinne Le Quéré, Robert B. Jackson, Matthew W. Jones, Adam J. P. Smith, Sam Abernethy, Robbie M. Andrew, Anthony J. De-Gol, David R. Willis, Yuli Shan, Josep G. Canadell, Pierre Friedlingstein, Felix Creutzig and Glen P. Peters. Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement. Nature Climate Change (2020), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0797-x


Materials:

  • All files in one zip-archive (download) zip archive with 5 excel files, 3.06 MB
  • Data file 1: Change in CO2 emission per country and by sector (download) excel file, 1607 KB
  • Data file 2: Change in CO2 emission per USA state and by sector (download) excel file, 1175 KB
  • Data file 3: Change in CO2 emission per Chinese province and by sector (download) excel file, 677 KB
  • Data file 4: Data for figures in the article (download) excel file, 296 KB
  • Data file 5: Confinement index data (download) excel file, 95 KB

Introduction

Government policies during the COVID-19 pandemic have drastically altered patterns of energy demand around the world. Many international borders were closed and populations were confined to their homes, which reduced transport and changed consumption patterns. Here we compile government policies and activity data to estimate the decrease in CO2 emissions during forced confinements.

Main results

At their peak in early April 2020, daily global CO2 emissions decreased by –17% (–11 to –25% for ±1σ) compared with the mean 2019 levels, with just under half of this total change occuring due to changes in surface transport. At their peak, emissions in individual countries decreased by –26% on average. Emissions rebounded to within 5% of mean 2019 levels (range 1% to 8%) in early June as countries lifted or weakened their confinement policies. The impact on 2020 annual emissions depends on the duration of the confinement, with a low estimate of –4% (–2 to –7%) if prepandemic conditions return by mid-June, and a high estimate of –7% (–3 to –12%) if some restrictions remain worldwide until the end of 2020. Government actions and economic incentives post crisis will likely influence the global CO2 emissions path for decades.


Fraction of global CO2 emissions produced in areas subject to confinement. (see paper for further details)
Fraction of global CO2 emissions produced in areas subject to confinement. (see paper for further details)

Change in activity by sector during confinement level 3 (percent). The data includes: for the power sector, electricity trends, industrial sectors, surface transport, residential energy use and aviation. (see paper for further details)
Change in activity by sector during confinement level 3 (percent). The data includes: for the power sector, electricity trends, industrial sectors, surface transport, residential energy use and aviation. (see paper for further details)

Global daily fossil CO2 emissions (MtCO2 d−1). a) Annual mean daily emissions in the period 1970–2019 (black line), updated from the Global Carbon Project (±1σ; grey shading). The red line shows the daily emissions up to end of April 2020 estimated here. b) Daily CO2 emissions in 2020 (red line, as in a) based on the CI and corresponding change in activity for each CI. (see paper for further details)
Global daily fossil CO2 emissions (MtCO2 d−1). a) Annual mean daily emissions in the period 1970–2019 (black line), updated from the Global Carbon Project (±1σ; grey shading). The red line shows the daily emissions up to 11 June 2020 estimated here. b) Daily CO2 emissions in 2020 (red line, as in a) based on the CI and corresponding change in activity for each CI. (see paper for further details)

Change in global daily fossil CO2 emissions by sector (MtCO2 d−1). The uncertainty ranges represent the full range of our estimates. Changes are relative to annual mean daily emissions from those sectors in 2019. (see paper for further details)
Change in global daily fossil CO2 emissions by sector (MtCO2 d−1). The uncertainty ranges represent the full range of our estimates. Changes are relative to annual mean daily emissions from those sectors in 2019. (see paper for further details)